From Freedom’s Shadow — References & Acknowledgements

From Freedom's Shadow: African Americans & the United States Capitol

References, Acknowledgements & Suggested Reading


Exhibit Staff:

Curator: Felicia Bell

Project Manager: Donald R. Kennon



William C. Allen
Bob Arnebeck
Lauren Borchard
Farar Elliott
Frances Tucci Farley
Randy Groves
Dr. Walter Hill
Mary Hughes
Margaret Hutto
Lucinda P. Janke
Dr. Robert Kapsch
Steven S. Lapham
Pamela Scott
Diane Skvarla
Dr. David Taft Terry
USCHS Interns
Diana Wailes
Dr. Eugene Walton
Dr. Barbara Wolanin





Adler Display

Congressional Black Caucus


Howard University, Department of History

Library of Congress

Maryland Historical Society

National Archives & Records Administration

National Council for the Social Studies

Office of the Architect of the Capitol

Reginald F. Lewis Museum of Maryland African American History & Culture

Smithsonian Institution

U. S. Capitol Police

U. S. House of Representatives Office of History & Preservation

U. S. Senate Historical Office


Suggested Readings:

Allen, William C. “Capitol Construction,” American Visions, Feb./Mar. 1995.

Allen, William C. The United States Capitol: A Brief Architectural History. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing, 2001.

Arnebeck, Bob. Through a Fiery Trial: Building Washington, 1790-1800. Lanham: Madison Books, 1991.

Clark-Lewis, Elizabeth. First Freed: Washington, D. C., in the Emancipation Era. Washington, D. C.: Howard University Press, 2002.

Clay, William L. Just Permanent Interests: Black Americans in Congress 1870-1991. New York: Amistad Press, Inc., 1992.

Conner, Jane Hollenbeck. Birthstone of the White House and Capitol. Virginia Beach: The Donning Company Publishers, 2005.

Harris, C. M., ed. Papers of William Thornton: Volume One, 1781-1802. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Kapsch, Robert J. “Building Liberty’s Capital: Black Labor and the New Federal City,” American Visions, Feb./Mar. 1995.

Medford, Edna Greene. “’There was so many degrees in slavery’: Unfree Labor in an Upper South, Mixed Farming Community in the Antebellum Period,” Slavery and Abolition, 14 (August, 1993): 35-47.

Robinson, Randall. The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. New York: Dutton, 2000.

Introduction & Location



Emancipation & Representation

Segregation & Representation